When heat is supplied to a material, the particles that make up the material increases the speed of their motion. In a solid, the vibration of the particles becomes faster. In liquid, the particles move faster. As a result, the temperature of the material increases.
The amount of heat supplied and the increase in temperature is related by
where is the heat supplied, is the mass of the substance, is the specific heat capacity and is the change in temperature.
The specific heat capacity of a substance is defined as
The energy needed to increase the temperature of a substance by 1ºC is the specific heat capacity of the substance.